One of our Program Committee members, Alex Korbonits, recently interviewed Halim Abbas, Vice President of Data Science at Cognoa, on how recent advances in machine learning have impacted research in childhood development, and his work at Cognoa.
AK) Recently, Nature published a groundbreaking article on the application of advanced machine learning techniques to model early childhood development. Specifically, researchers leveraged artificial neural networks to predict diagnoses for autism with high sensitivity well before behavioral characteristics correlated with ASD usually appear. How have recent advances in machine learning impacted cognitive clinical science generally and research in early childhood development specifically?
HA) Machine learning is a transformative technology that has helped disrupt or completely reinvent every vertical it has been applied to (including health and wellness) in the last decade or two. Cognitive clinical science is relatively late to the party and is only recently beginning to benefit from the power of ML. From leveraging phenotypic data toward reliable assessment, to mining genomic data for meaningful signal, or even building bridges between the two sources, the sky’s the limit.
AK) What excites you the most about applying machine learning to early childhood development?
HA) I worked across many verticals before joining Cognoa. It is hard to beat the excitement you feel when working on a solution to put parents’ minds at ease, or alert them to take action early enough to make a meaningful difference in their children’s quality of life. The field is ripe for technological advancement, and the potential benefit couldn’t be more urgently needed. With developmental delay affecting 1 in 6 U.S. children and a national shortage of diagnosticians, anxious parents often wait over a year to get in to see a specialist; this means that many children miss out on important early interventional therapies. Being in a position to help with a problem so personal to so many people feels like such a privilege.
AK) With all prediction problems, there is a natural tension between maximizing accuracy vs. maintaining interpretability. At Cognoa, what kinds of prediction problems do you encounter that require interpretability? Are there some prediction problems for which black-box models are acceptable or encouraged?
HA) Anything we build that is designed to interact with or influence the medical diagnostic process is required to be interpretable by medical professionals, and understandably so. At a minimum, this means that the most relevant factors to the prediction must be knowable, and the features be tied to meaningful semantic concepts. While this makes certain ML techniques (like PCA or SVM) unfavorable, it doesn’t pose an insurmountable limitation in practice. Models that are peripheral to the diagnostic process (like patient clustering, signal processing, anomaly detection, and time series analysis techniques) tend to remain “black-boxy”.
AK) How do you and your team communicate complex machine learning concepts to parents and cognitive clinical scientists?
HA) The trick is to keep the messaging firmly grounded in the application domain and avoid drifting into specifics that are not directly interpretable in the problem space. A parent isn’t interested in learning whether the underlying screening model was trained with ensemble techniques or which kernel method was used in the SVM classifier. The aspects that matter in this case include meaningful measures of reliability of assessment and information about the factors that significantly contributed to the conclusion. We also found that our users greatly value any information we can give them about the statistical significance of their experience relative to their respective demographic bin. Decile placements, false positive/negative rates, and confidence ranges are good examples.
AK) To what extent is further research in early childhood development influenced by the use of predictive machine learning models?
HA) Today, the typical age of diagnosis for a condition like autism remains over 4, even though it has long been established that earlier diagnosis dramatically improves the impact of intervention. A new breed of clinical science and data science experts are currently busy at work looking for ways to put predictive modeling at work on younger and younger children. The younger they are, the more subtle and fragmented the relevant signals are, which puts the challenge right up the alley of data-driven modeling. The fruit of this wide collaboration might be reliably diagnosing developmental conditions within the first year of life.
AK) With many medical applications, modeling can be extremely difficult due to the so-called “p >> n” problem, where you may have very rich “wide” data but not enough instances to learn effectively. Furthermore, you may have to rely on inconclusive screening, missing data, or noisy measurements. Do you regularly experience these phenomena at Cognoa, and if so, do you have any preferred techniques to circumvent them?
HA) We call it the wide-and-shallow dataset problem, and it is perennial in the field of clinical science. One approach we use to mitigate that limitation is to avail ourselves from two different but complementary sources of data: Clinical patient records are labeled by experts and hence relatively clean and reliable, but sparse, shallow, heavily unbalanced, and very expensive to acquire. Data we accrue from our app user-base is orders of magnitude more voluminous, cheaper to amass, timelier and denser, but inherently noisy and relatively unreliable. At Cognoa we developed a multi-pronged approach in which each data source is put to proper use. For example, we might mine our user-base data to better understand the dimensions and/or segments that are most relevant to the problem at hand, and the nature of the (heavily non-linear) relationships and dependencies interconnecting the relevant dimensions. These insights would then influence the way we seek to collect, filter, and balance clinical patient records used for training our behavioral health screening models.
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Halim Abbas, VP of Data Science, Cognoa, is a high tech innovator who spearheaded world-class data science projects at game changing tech firms such as eBay and Quixey. Formally educated in Machine Learning, his professional expertise span Information Retrieval, Natural Language Processing, and Big Data. Halim has a proven track record of applying state of the art data science techniques across industry verticals such as eCommerce, web & mobile services, airline, BioPharma, and the medical technology industry.
He currently leads the Data Science department at Cognoa, a data driven behavioral health care Palo Alto startup.
Alex Korbonits is a Data Scientist at Remitly, Inc., where he works extensively on feature extraction and putting machine learning models into production. Outside of work, he loves Kaggle competitions, is diving deep into topological data analysis, and is exploring machine learning on GPUs. Alex is a graduate of the University of Chicago with degrees in Mathematics and Economics.